Black History Month: Dr. Jane Cooke Wright

Dr. Jane Cooke Wright was a pioneer in chemotherapeutic agents and helped revolutionize cancer research.

JaneWright

She was born on November 20, 1919, to Dr. Louis T. Wright and Corinne Cooke.

The Wright family had a strong history of academic achievement in medicine. Her paternal grandfather was born into slavery, and after the Civil War earned his M.D. at Meharry Medical College. Her step-grandfather was Dr. William Fletcher Penn, the first African American to graduate from Yale Medical College. And Jane’s father, Louis Tompkins Wright, MD, FACS, was among the first black students to earn an M.D. from Harvard Medical School as well as the first African-American doctor appointed to a public hospital in New York City. He went on to found the Cancer Research Center at Harlem Hospital in NYC in 1947, and was a renowned cancer scientist and surgeon.

“What the Negro physician needs is equal opportunity for training and practice—no more, nor less.”

– Dr. Louis Tompkins Wright

Dr. Jane Wright attended Smith College and earned a full scholarship to study medicine at New York Medical College. She graduated with honors in 1945, as part of an accelerated three-year program. She interned at Bellevue Hospital and completed her surgical residency at Harlem Hospital in 1948.

In 1949 Dr. Wright joined her father at the Cancer Research Foundation at Harlem Hospital, where they began research on potential chemotherapeutic agents. Chemotherapy was still mostly experimental at that time. At Harlem Hospital her father had already re-directed the focus of foundation research to investigating anti-cancer chemicals. Dr. Louis Wright worked in the lab and Dr. Jane Wright would perform the patient trials. In 1949, the two began testing a new chemical on human leukemia and cancers of the lymphatic system. Several patients who participated in the trials had some remission. Following Dr. Louis Wright’s death in 1952, Dr. Jane Wright was appointed head of the Cancer Research Foundation, at the age of 33.

In 1955, Dr. Wright became an associate professor of surgical research at NYU and director of cancer chemotherapy research at NYU Medical Center and its affiliated Bellevue and University hospitals. She pioneered efforts in utilizing patient tumor biopsies for drug testing, to help select drugs that may work specifically against a particular tumor, and she was the first to identify methotrexate—one of the foundational chemotherapy drugs—as an effective tool against cancerous tumors.

In 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed Dr. Wright to the President’s Commission on Heart Disease, Cancer, and Stroke. Based on the Commission’s report, a national network of treatment centers was established for these diseases. In 1967, she was named professor of surgery, head of the Cancer Chemotherapy Department, and associate dean at New York Medical College, her alma mater.

At a time when African American women physicians numbered only a few hundred in the entire United States, Dr. Wright was the highest ranked African American woman at a nationally recognized medical institution.

She was also the recipient of many awards, including the honorary Doctor of Medical Sciences degree from the Women’s Medical College of Pennsylvania.

Wright retired in 1985 and was appointed emerita professor at New York Medical College in 1987. She died on February 19, 2013 at the age of 93.

Wellness Wednesday: Make Your Child’s Shots Less Stressful

National Immunization Awareness Month is a reminder children need vaccines right from the start.

instagram_childrenVaccines help protect babies and young children against 14 serious diseases before their 2nd birthday. Even though you are keeping them safe from diseases, it’s hard to see your children cry when they receive their shots. But you can take some steps before, during and after a vaccine visit to ease the short-term pain and stress of getting shots.

Read about the shots your child will get in advance. “CDC has a lot of useful information to help parents understand the importance of on-time vaccination,” said Dr. Candice Robinson, a pediatrician at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). “You can review this information before your appointment and then you can ask your child’s doctor any remaining questions you have about vaccines.”

You may also want to bring your child’s vaccine record to show the doctor and pack a favorite toy, book, blanket or other comfort item to keep your child occupied at the visit. For older children, shots can pinch or sting, but not for long. Remind them shots help keep them healthy.

Distract your child with a toy, a story, a song or something interesting in the room. Make eye contact with your child and smile, talk softly or sing. If you can, hold your child tightly on your lap. Take deep breaths with an older child to help “blow out” the pain.

After the shot, hug, cuddle and praise your child. For babies, swaddling, breastfeeding or offering a bottle may offer quick relief. Comfort and reassure older children if they cry.

If you notice redness, soreness or swelling from the shot, place a clean, cool washcloth on the area. These reactions are usually mild and resolve on their own without needing treatment. If your child runs a fever, try a cool sponge bath.

You can also use a non-aspirin pain reliever if your doctor says it’s OK. Some children eat less, sleep more or act fussy for a day after they get shots. Make sure your child gets plenty to drink. If you’re worried about anything, call your doctor.

“Remember,” added Dr. Robinson, “keeping your child up to date on vaccines is the best way to protect against vaccine-preventable diseases.”

Learn more about childhood vaccines at www.cdc.gov/vaccines/parents or call 800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636).

Wellness Wednesday: Five Important Reasons to Vaccinate Your Child

National Immunization Awareness Month is a reminder children need vaccines right from the start.

instagram_preteens_teensYou want to do what is best for your children. You know about the importance of car seats, baby gates and other ways to keep them safe. But did you know that one of the best ways to protect your children is to make sure they have all their vaccinations?

Immunizations can save your child’s life

Because of advances in medical science, your child can be protected against more diseases than ever before. Some diseases that once injured or killed thousands of children are no longer common in the U.S.—primarily due to safe and effective vaccines. Polio was once America’s most feared disease, causing death and paralysis across the country, but today, thanks to vaccination, there are no reports of polio in the U.S.

Vaccination is very safe and effective

Vaccines are given to children only after a long and careful review by scientists, doctors and health care professionals. Vaccines will involve some discomfort and may cause pain, redness or tenderness at the site of injection, but this is minimal compared to the pain, discomfort and trauma of the diseases these vaccines prevent. Serious side effects following vaccination, such as severe allergic reaction, are very rare. The disease-prevention benefits of getting vaccines are much greater than the possible side effects for almost all children.

Immunization protects others you care about

VaccineChildren in the U.S. still get vaccine-preventable diseases. In fact, there has been a resurgence of whooping cough (pertussis) over the past few years. For example, nearly 18,000 cases of whooping cough were reported in the U.S. in 2016.

Unfortunately, some babies are too young to be completely vaccinated and some people may not be able to receive certain vaccinations due to severe allergies, weakened immune systems from conditions like leukemia or other reasons. To help keep them safe and protected from vaccine-preventable diseases, it is important you and your children who are able to get vaccinated are fully immunized. This not only protects your family, but also helps prevent the spread of these diseases to your friends and loved ones.

Immunizations can save your family time and money

A child with a vaccine-preventable disease can be denied attendance at schools or child care facilities. Some vaccine-preventable diseases can result in prolonged disabilities and can take a financial toll because of lost time at work and medical bills. In contrast, getting vaccinated against these diseases is a good investment and is usually covered by insurance or the Vaccines for Children (VFC) program, which is a federally funded program that provides vaccines at no cost to children from low-income families.

Immunization protects future generations

Vaccines have reduced and, in some cases, eliminated many diseases that killed or severely disabled people just a few generations ago. For example, smallpox vaccination eradicated that disease worldwide. Your children don’t have to get smallpox shots anymore because the disease no longer exists. The risk of pregnant women becoming infected with rubella (German measles) and infecting their newborns has decreased substantially because most women and girls have been vaccinated, and birth defects associated with that virus are rare in the United States. If we continue vaccinating according to the recommended schedule, parents in the future may be able to trust that some diseases of today will no longer be around to harm their children.

For more information about the importance of infant immunization, visit www.cdc.gov/vaccines.


More Information:

Immunization Schedules

Possible Side Effects from Vaccines

Wellness Wednesday: Playing it safe with fireworks

We’re coming up on the 4th of July. Hooray for a day off with parties, good food and good times!

hd-wallpaper-with-fireworks-at-new-years-eveOf course, we should never forget why we are actually blessed with this holiday. So we celebrate the birthplace of our nation with cheer, American flags, ceremonies and (of course) fireworks.

Unfortunately, this is also the time of year when the emergency department sees a bit of an uptick in the number of abrasions, burns and more serious injuries stemming from these brightly burning festive sticks of fire. So, this is why we urge you to please, please leave the fireworks to the professionals!

In 2017, 67 percent of the estimated annual fireworks-related, emergency department-treated injuries occurred between June 16 and July 16. Almost three quarters happened in one month!

According to the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), eight people died and more than 12,900 were injured badly enough to require medical treatment after fireworks-related incidents in 2017. 2017 saw the highest number of fireworks-related injuries in at least 15 years. Of those injuries, 8,700 were treated during that one month period surrounding the 4th of July. And if that wasn’t bad enough, 36 percent of those injured were children under the age of 15.


2017 saw the highest number of fireworks-related injuries in at least 15 years.


Sparklers

Ignited sparkler with the American flag in the background

Many people think sparklers are the perfect way for a child to be part of a 4th of July celebration. They can wave them around, make swirls and letters and everyone has a good time.

Except when they don’t.

Sparklers can burn anywhere from 1,000 to 2,000 degrees—hot enough to melt some metals. Sparklers can quickly ignite clothing, and many children have received severe burns from dropping sparklers on their feet.

The CPSC reports that approximately 16 percent of all consumer fireworks injuries are caused by sparklers burning hands and legs. Young children account for the majority of sparkler injuries.

As disappointed as they may be, do not let children younger than 12 hold a sparkler. They often lack the physical coordination to handle sparklers safely and likely will not know what to do in an emergency. Close supervision of older children is necessary.

Safe Fireworks?

fireworksThere are no such thing as completely safe fireworks. But there are ways to keep you and your family safe during a fireworks celebration.

  • Make sure fireworks are legal in your area before buying or using them.
  • Never allow young children to play with or ignite fireworks
  • Always have an adult supervise fireworks activities.
  • Never try to re-light or pick up fireworks that have not ignited fully.
  • Keep a bucket of water or a garden hose handy in case of fire or other mishap.
  • After fireworks complete their burning, douse the spent device with plenty of water from a bucket or hose before discarding it to prevent a trash fire.

CPSC Fireworks Safety Video

Pets and FireworksFourth of July kitten

No, we’re not going to tell you to not let your pet play with fireworks. We sincerely hope you already know that is a very, very bad idea! And if not, I guess this serves as us telling you.

It is important though to keep pets safe over the 4th of July holiday. And this does include keeping them away from fireworks but not just because of injury.

July 5 is the busiest day of the year for pet shelters. This is because so many animals become anxious and frightened by the loud noises of fireworks and escape their yards, homes and leashes.

We recommend you leave your pets at home when attending any celebration during the holiday. And even at home, you should take precautions even if your pet has never ran away or escaped before.

And it’s not just dogs. Many people have barbecues and parties for the holiday. This means a lot of people going in and out of the house, including children, leaving the door open long enough for a quick escape.

So it’s probably best to make sure your pet is in a secure inside room with plenty of food and water and someplace to tuck into when the loud noises start.

It’s also a time when a lot of different foods are left out and are sometimes dropped on the floor. So there is a greater chance of your pet getting hold of a food that may not be very good for him. Also the ASPCA notes, that citronella-based repellents, oils, candles and insect coils are irritating toxins to pets.

The American Veterinary Medical Association and ASPCA recommend that you consider microchipping your pet, even if he spends all his time indoors. And you should be sure the information on the chip is kept up to date with your current phone and address or Veterinarian information.

Most Injured Body Parts 2018

Conclusion

We want this to be an enjoyable, festive and safe holiday for you, and your family (including your pets). So please #CelebrateSafely and Happy 4th of July!

Sources: U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, American Veterinary Medical Association.


More information:

NFPA Fireworks Infographic

CPSC Fireworks Information Center

AVMA: July 4th Safety

ASPCA: Fourth of July Safety Tips

December Can Be a New Beginning Too!

Well, it’s December! How did that happen?

Hello DecemberFor many of us, our lives are so hectic, it feels like we suddenly looked up at the calendar and 2017 is almost over. Thanksgiving is already a week behind us. Halloween was over a month ago. And summer … wow.

This time of year is especially hectic with so many holidays and end of year plans, that many of us tend to get a bit stressed out. Maybe you made resolutions last January and never followed through. Or you had a project you wanted to complete this year that you never got to.

It’s okay!

We are only human. If it didn’t happen, that’s okay. If it’s truly something you want to do, you can still do it. And maybe it’s just not a priority in your life right now.

Many people tend to look at December as an ending, rather than a beginning. After all, it’s the last month of year. Everything leads up to January 1. So people either give up on things or say, “I’ll wait until next year.” It doesn’t help that the days are shorter and colder and some people become depressed during the winter months.

But why wait?

Okay … okay … maybe because December tends to be crazy with holidays, shopping, decorating and visiting friends and family. That’s true. But if you wanted to start a diet or an exercise routine or plan a trip or a home renovation, you don’t have to wait until January to get started.

Why put off ’til January what you can do today? Do you want to try to lose a few pounds or start eating and living healthier? Start today. You will have a month head start on all those people who are waiting until January.

But the holidays are filled with cookies and pie and candy and …

Sad gingerbread manSo, if you start eating healthier now and slip a little bit as December rolls on, you are still ahead of the game. And there are ways to eat a little healthier around the holidays. Begin to add some exercise into your day. Start walking up and down steps at work instead of taking the elevator. Park a little bit further away in the parking lot (But always be careful. See our blog post on Holiday Shopping Safety).

Start looking into airline and hotel deals for that trip you have been wanting to take. There may be some excellent deals you can find now instead of waiting until the new year to book.

Planning a new kitchen or addition to your home? Or maybe just a freshening up with new paint? Retail stores are not the only ones with deals at this time of year. Pick up the supplies now or start putting feelers out for contractors so you’ll be ready to go when the new year rolls around.

December does not have to be an ending. Every day is a new day, whether it’s December 1, January 1 or May 1! So, get out there and start anew … a whole new December is waiting for you!


More Information:

SAD: Seasonal Affective Disorder

AHA Holiday Healthy Eating Guide

Wellness Wednesday: Living with Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills, and eventually the ability to carry out the simplest tasks. In most people with Alzheimer’s, symptoms first appear in their mid-60s.

Senior woman with prescription medicine

The number of Americans living with Alzheimer’s disease is growing—and growing fast. Estimates vary, but experts suggest that more than 5.5 million Americans of all ages have Alzheimer’s disease.

Alzheimer’s disease is currently ranked as the sixth-leading cause of death in the United States. It is the fifth-leading cause of death among those age 65 and older and a leading cause of disability and poor health. As the U.S. population ages, Alzheimer’s is becoming a more common cause of death. It is the only top 10 cause of death that cannot be prevented, cured or even slowed.

Between 2000 and 2014, deaths from Alzheimer’s disease as recorded on death certificates increased 89 percent, while deaths from the number one cause of death (heart disease) decreased 14 percent.


Today, someone in the U.S. develops Alzheimer’s every 66 seconds. By mid-century, that is poised to become one every 33 seconds.


Alzheimer’s is the most common cause of dementia among older adults.

Dementia is the loss of cognitive functioning—thinking, remembering, and reasoning—and behavioral abilities to such an extent that it interferes with a person’s daily life and activities.

Dementia is not a specific disease. It’s an overall term that describes a wide range of symptoms associated with a decline in memory or other thinking skills severe enough to reduce a person’s ability to perform everyday activities. Alzheimer’s disease accounts for 60 to 80 percent of cases. Vascular dementia, which occurs after a stroke, is the second most common dementia type.

Dementia ranges in severity from the mildest stage, when it is just beginning to affect a person’s functioning, to the most severe stage, when the person must depend completely on others for basic activities of daily living.

10warningsigns-2Alzheimer’s Symptoms

Just like the rest of our bodies, our brains change as we age. Most of us eventually notice some slowed thinking and occasional problems with remembering certain things. However, serious memory loss, confusion and other major changes in the way our minds work may be a sign that brain cells are failing.

The most common early symptom of Alzheimer’s is difficulty remembering newly learned information.

Alzheimer’s changes typically begin in the part of the brain that affects learning. As Alzheimer’s advances through the brain it leads to increasingly severe symptoms, including disorientation, mood and behavior changes; deepening confusion about events, time and place; unfounded suspicions about family, friends and professional caregivers; more serious memory loss and behavior changes; and difficulty speaking, swallowing and walking.

People with memory loss or other possible signs of Alzheimer’s may find it hard to recognize they have a problem. Signs of dementia may be more obvious to family members or friends. Anyone experiencing dementia-like symptoms should see a doctor as soon as possible.

People with memory and thinking concerns should talk to their doctor to find out whether their symptoms are due to Alzheimer’s or another cause, such as stroke, tumor, Parkinson’s disease, sleep disturbances, side effects of medication, an infection, or a non-Alzheimer’s dementia. Some of these conditions may be treatable and possibly reversible.

Prevalence

An estimated 5.5 million Americans of all ages have Alzheimer’s disease.

alz-risks

  • Of the estimated 5.5 million Americans living with Alzheimer’s dementia in 2017, an estimated 5.3 million are age 65 and older and approximately 200,000 individuals are under age 65 and have younger-onset Alzheimer’s.
  • Almost two-thirds of Americans with Alzheimer’s are women.

The number of Americans with Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias will grow each year as the size and proportion of the U.S. population age 65 and older continue to increase. By 2050, the number of Americans living with Alzheimer’s disease may reach 16 million, barring the development of medical breakthroughs to prevent or cure the disease.

In 2017, an estimated 700,000 people in the U.S. age 65 and older will die with Alzheimer’s.

As the population of the U.S. ages, Alzheimer’s is becoming a more common cause of death. Although deaths from other major causes have decreased significantly, official records indicate that deaths from Alzheimer’s disease have increased significantly. Between 2000 and 2013, deaths attributed to Alzheimer’s disease increased 71 percent.

Cost of Alzheimer’s

Let me help you out of the carIn 2016, 15.9 million family and friends provided 18.2 billion hours of unpaid assistance to those with Alzheimer’s and other dementias, a contribution to the nation valued at $230.1 billion.

  • Approximately two-thirds of caregivers are women, and 34 percent are age 65 or older.
  • 41 percent of caregivers have a household income of $50,000 or less.
  • Approximately one quarter of dementia caregivers are “sandwich generation” caregivers—meaning that they care not only for an aging parent, but also for children under age 18.

Alzheimer’s takes a devastating toll on caregivers. Nearly 60 percent of Alzheimer’s and dementia caregivers rate the emotional stress of caregiving as high or very high; about 40 percent suffer from depression.

Alzheimer’s disease is one of the costliest chronic diseases to society.

  • Total payments in 2017 for all individuals with Alzheimer’s or other dementias are estimated at $259 billion.
  • Average per-person Medicare spending for people age 65 or older with Alzheimer’s and other dementias is three times higher than for seniors without dementia.
  • Total annual payments for health care, long-term care and hospice care for people with Alzheimer’s or other dementias are projected to increase from $259 billion in 2017 to more than $1.1 trillion in 2050.

Sources:
NIH National Institute on Aging
Alzheimer’s Association


More Information:

Alzheimer’s Association Fact Sheet

Alzheimer’s Association Pennsylvania Statistics

NIH Institute on Aging Alzheimer’s Fact Sheet

NIH Alzheimers Disease Basics

Wellness Wednesday: Eye Safety During a Total Eclipse

A couple weeks ago, in our Wellness Wednesday post called UV Safety and Eyesight, we shared information about how the sun can cause damage to your eyes if you do not protect them. Hopefully, by now, your mom has recovered from your telling her she was right about not looking directly at the sun.

Total Eclipse 2009 in China
Total Solar Eclipse seen in China, 2009

This post is all the more timely because next Monday, the U.S. will experience its first total eclipse of the sun in over 38 years. I’m sure by now you’ve heard all about it. Maybe you’re even tired of hearing about it … or you figure it doesn’t affect you.

Maybe it won’t. If you are not the least bit curious and have no desire to watch one of the coolest natural phenomena in the universe, then that’s fine … you can stop reading now.

Still there?

Good. This means you’re either a little curious or you have nothing else to do at the moment. Whichever one is fine. We are not judging. And hopefully while you’re reading you will even learn something in the process.

What is a Total Solar Eclipse?

infographic-solar-eclipse-facebook.pngSo, we know the Earth spins on an axis, like a top—giving us night and day. It also revolves around the sun in an elliptical orbit once per year—giving us seasons (with a few exceptions). The moon orbits the earth once every 27.323 days, giving us the different phases from new moon to full moon.

During a Total Solar Eclipse, the moon’s orbit crosses paths directly in front of the sun in such a way that from specific areas of the planet, it blocks the sun from view either partially or completely, causing a brief period of darkness in the middle of the afternoon.

total-solar-eclipse-process
Copyright: NASA/Phil Hart

On this occasion, the ‘path of totality’—where viewers will experience a total solar eclipse—cuts diagonally across the U.S. through several states from Oregon down to South Carolina. This means, from those areas, the sun will become completely ‘eclipsed’ by the moon for a brief period on Monday afternoon.

For those of us who are above or below those areas, we will experience a partial eclipse of the sun by the moon. So part of the sun will continue to be visible. But much like the phases of the moon, we will see a waxing and waning effect.

So what’s the big deal?

Well, hopefully, you at least find that a tiny bit fascinating!

Totality2010-S&T-DennisDiCicco
Totality as seen from Easter Island on July 11, 2010. Credit: Dennis di Cicco / Sky & Telescope

But even if you’re not yet sold, if you plan to watch this phenomenon take place or anticipate that your friends might drag you with them to watch … you need to be prepared.

There are many superstitions around total eclipses. But the concern isn’t with the eclipse itself. It doesn’t make people go mad. The sun doesn’t suddenly emit any special rays that are extra harmful. Pregnant women have nothing to fear. You may feel the temperature drop a little for that short time, but it will be brief and no different than just after dusk.

The issue comes when your relaxed eyes are gazing at a covered sun and suddenly it begins to peek back out from behind the moon.

You know what it’s like when you turn on the bathroom light in the morning after your eyes have been in the dark all night long? Ouch! It takes a while to adjust, right? Your dilated eyes need time to constrict and not take in so much light at once.

In an eclipse, this is a similar effect but multiplied by like a million and dangerous because of the UV radiation! When you are typically outside on a sunny day, even without sunglasses (though that isn’t recommended), your eyes adjust, you squint, you look away from the sun … because it is uncomfortable! It’s a reflex. So you are never getting that full on effect of looking at the sun.

During a total solar eclipse, people are purposefully gazing in the direction of the sun and as it begins to peak out from behind the moon, even for a few seconds, that can cause catastrophic damage to your eyes. In the partial phase, visible light is reduced enough that it’s no longer painful or uncomfortable to look at, so people assume it’s safe. And one of the problems is you may not even realize you have done damage until the next day.

WomanShades-MarkMargolis
Credit: Michael Bakich

Exposing your eyes to the sun without proper eye protection during a solar eclipse can cause ‘eclipse blindness’ or retinal burns, also known as solar retinopathy.

You must wear protective eyewear (or you can make a pinhole projector) if you are going to watch any part of a solar eclipse! Sunglasses are not protective. You shouldn’t be able to see anything through a safe solar filter (ISO 12312-2 compliant) except the sun itself.

At this late stage, finding eclipse glasses is getting harder but it’s not impossible. Some libraries are giving them away, or you may still find them at local Best Buy or Lowes stores. You can also try online, but make sure you order from a reputable company and they specify they are ISO 12312-2 compliant.

Witnessing the Total Solar Eclipse

If you are in the path of totality, the moon will begin to cover the sun. Your eyes must be protected. Once the sun is completely blocked by the moon, you can take them off to view this amazing phenomenon. But be brief. This will only last minutes. Be ready to put your glasses back on because as soon as the sunlight begins to appear again, you will need to put them back on.

NASA_map_508.jpgIf you are not in the path of totality, you will only be seeing a partial eclipse. Therefore, you will need to keep your eclipse glasses on for the duration of the event.

When and Where to Watch the Total Solar Eclipse

The actual timing of the eclipse is determined by where you are in the U.S. It can be anywhere between 10:20 a.m. on the West Coast and 2:40 p.m. on the East Coast. Check the NASA website or your local news stations for exact times.

PhilaEclipse
Timing of the Total Solar Eclipse in the Philadelphia, Pa., viewing area.

If you cannot get outside to experience the solar eclipse or you do not have the protective eyewear to do so, many networks are live broadcasting the event, and there will be live streams from NASA as well.

Sources:

American Academy of Opthalmology, American Optometric Association, American Astronomical Society, NASA and Space.com.


More Information:

NASA Eclipse Live Stream [August 21, 12-4 p.m.]

How to safely watch a solar eclipse

Eclipse Across America

How Sunlight Damages the Eyes

WHO: The known health effects of UV